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Posted at 2017-08-11 13:14 | RSS feed (Full text feed) | Blog Index
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Friday Q&A 2017-08-11: Swift.Unmanaged
by Mike Ash  
This article is also available in Estonian (translation by Johanne Teerink).

In order to work with C APIs, we sometimes need to convert Swift object references to and from raw pointers. Swift's Unmanaged struct is the standard API for handling this. Today, I'd like to talk about what it does and how to use it.

Getting Swift references into and out of the world of C encompasses two separate tasks.

The first task is converting a reference into the raw bytes for a void *, or converting the raw bytes of a void * back to a reference. Since Swift references are implemented as pointers, this is straightforward. It's really just a matter of getting the type system to cooperate. You can do this with unsafeBitCast, although I strongly recommend against it. If these details ever changed, you'd be in trouble, whereas Unmanaged will continue to work.

The second task is making Swift's memory management work with a pointer that Swift can't see. Swift's ARC memory management requires the compiler to manage references to each object so that it can insert the appropriate retain and release calls. Once the pointer gets passed into C, it can no longer do this. Instead, you must manually tell the system how to handle memory management at each stage. Unmanaged provides the facilities to do this.

Unmanaged wraps a reference to an object. It is possible to keep Unmanaged values around long-term, but you typically use it as a brief, temporary stop on the way to or from a raw pointer.

From Swift to C
To pass a reference from Swift to C, you must create an Unmanaged value from that reference, then ask it for a raw pointer. There are two ways to create an Unmanaged value from a Swift reference. To figure out which one you need, you must figure out your memory management requirements.

Using Unmanaged.passRetained(obj) will perform an unbalanced retain on the object. This effectively confers ownership on whatever C API you're passing the pointer to. It must be balanced with a release at a later point, or the object will leak.

Using Unmanaged.passUnretained(obj) will leave the object's retain count unchanged. This does not confer any ownership on the C API you pass the pointer to. This is suitable when passing to a C API which takes ownership internally (for example, passing an object into a CFArray which will retain it) and when passing to a C API which uses the value immediately but doesn't hold onto it long-term. If you pass such a value to a C API that holds the pointer long-term and doesn't take ownership, your object may be deallocated prematurely resulting in a crash or worse.

Once you have the Unmanaged value, you can obtain a raw pointer from it using the toOpaque method. Since you already decided how memory management needs to be handled, there's only one call here, and no decisions to make at this point.

Here's an example of how you'd get a raw pointer with ownership:

    let ptr = Unmanaged.passRetained(obj).toOpaque()

And here's an example without ownership:

    let ptr = Unmanaged.passUnretained(obj).toOpaque()

In both cases, ptr is an UnsafeMutableRawPointer which is Swift's equivalent to C's void *, and can be passed into C APIs.

From C to Swift
To retrieve a reference from C into Swift code, you create an Unmanaged value from the raw pointer, then take a reference from it. There are two ways to take a reference: one which consumes an unbalanced retain, and once which performs no memory management.

To create the Unmanaged value, use fromOpaque. Unlike passRetained and passUnretained, you must specify the generic type for Unmanaged when using fromOpaque so that the compiler knows which class you're expecting to receive.

Once you have the Unmanaged value, you can get a reference out of it. Using takeRetainedValue will perform an unbalanced release, which will balance an unbalanced retain previously performed with passRetained, or by C code which confers ownership on your code. Using takeUnretainedValue will obtain the object reference without performing any retain or release.

Here's an example of getting a reference from a pointer while performing an unbalanced release:

    let obj = Unmanaged<MyClass>.fromOpaque(ptr).takeRetainedValue()

And without a retain or release:

    let obj = Unmanaged<MyClass>.fromOpaque(ptr).takeUnretainedValue()

It's possible to use Umanaged in a one-sided way, with C APIs which take a pointer and do stuff with it, or which return a pointer. But the most common way to use Unmanaged is with C APIs which pass around a context pointer. In this situation, you control both sides, and you need to figure out your memory management to avoid crashing or leaking. How you do that will depend on what you're doing. There are a few fundamental patterns to use.

Synchronous Callback
Some APIs call you back immediately with your context pointer, completing all of their work before they return. In this case, you can pass the object unretained, and take it unretained. For example, here's some code that calls CFArrayApplyFunction and calls a method on self for each element in the array:

    let context = Unmanaged.passUnretained(self).toOpaque()
    let range = CFRangeMake(0, CFArrayGetCount(array))
    CFArrayApplyFunction(array, range, { element, context in
        let innerSelf = Unmanaged<MyClass>.fromOpaque(context!).takeUnretainedValue()
    }, context)

Because the function runs immediately, and we know that self will stay alive for the duration, we don't need to do any memory management on it.

Asynchronous One-Shot Callback
Some APIs perform a single callback later on, for example to inform you that some task has completed. In this case, you want to retain going in, and release in the callback. Here's an example using CFHost to perform asynchronous DNS resolution. As a bonus, this code also contains a one-sided use of Unmanaged to retrieve the return value of CFHostCreateWithName.

It starts by creating the host. CFHostCreateWithName returns an Unmanaged, presumably because it hasn't had any curated bridging done to it. Since it returns a value that we own, we use takeRetainedValue() on it to get the underlying value out:

    let host = CFHostCreateWithName(nil, "mikeash.com" as CFString).takeRetainedValue()

We need a context to pass to the host object. We'll ignore all fields of this context except info, which is the raw pointer where we'll put the pointer to self:

    var context = CFHostClientContext()
    context.info = Unmanaged.passRetained(self).toOpaque()

We'll set the callback using CFHostSetClient:

    CFHostSetClient(host, { host, typeInfo, error, info in

Here, we retrieve self passed through info by using Unmanaged again. Since we passed it retained, we use takeRetainedValue here to balance it out. We can then use the resulting reference.

        let innerSelf = Unmanaged<MyClass>.fromOpaque(info!).takeRetainedValue()
    }, &context)

This code starts the asynchronous resolution process:

    CFHostScheduleWithRunLoop(host, CFRunLoopGetCurrent(), CFRunLoopMode.commonModes.rawValue)
    CFHostStartInfoResolution(host, .addresses, nil)

Asynchronous Multi-Shot Callback
Finally, some APIs take a callback which they invoke many times later on. To handle this, you need to retain going in to ensure that the object stays alive. You must not release in the callback, since the first callback would destroy the object and leave subsequent callbacks with a pointer to junk. Instead, you must release the value later on, when all of the callbacks are done. Typically the API will provide a separate destruction callback to handle this.

Here's an example using CFRunLoopTimer to perform a task once per second. It starts by creating a context and filling out the info field like above:

    var context = CFRunLoopTimerContext()
    context.info = Unmanaged.passRetained(self).toOpaque()

This example also fills out the context's release field. In the release callback, it uses fromOpaque to get an Unmanaged for the info pointer, and then calls release to balance the retain:

    context.release = { Unmanaged<MyClass>.fromOpaque($0!).release() }

It then creates the timer and passes a callback:

    let timer = CFRunLoopTimerCreate(nil, 0, 1, 0, 0, { timer, info in

It retrieves self using Unmanaged. It uses takeUnretainedValue here, since we don't want to modify the object's retain count:

        let innerSelf = Unmanaged<MyClass>.fromOpaque(info!).takeUnretainedValue()
    }, &context)

Finally, it adds the timer to the runloop so the timer will fire:

    CFRunLoopAddTimer(CFRunLoopGetCurrent(), timer, CFRunLoopMode.commonModes)

Miscellaneous Functionality
Most of what you need from Unmanaged can be done using fromOpaque, passRetained, passUnretained, takeRetainedValue, takeUnretainedValue, and toOpaque. However, Unmanaged also exposes methods for performing memory management directly on objects without the window dressing of passing or taking values. We saw that briefly in the previous example with the call to release. Unmanaged provides three plain memory management calls:

These all do exactly what their names indicate. It's rare to need these, aside from release to balance retains as shown above, but they're there if you do.

One of Swift's great strengths is the smoothness with which it interoperates with C code. The Unmanaged API is a key component of that. Unfortunately, it requires the programmer to make memory management decisions as pointers move in and out of Swift, but that's an inherent part of the job it does. Once you have the memory management figured out, it's mostly straightforward to use.

That wraps things up for now. Come back soon for more programming-related mystery goo. Until then, Friday Q&A is driven by reader ideas, so if you have a topic you'd like to see covered, please send it in!

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"Interface with C" code suggests to me that Unmanaged is for dealing with C pointers, like when I have a char* or a struct's contents I want to make access in Swift. But Unmanaged is not for that, right? It seems to be it must only be used with pointers that are managed by the ObjC runtime, so wouldn't it be better to say "Unmanaged is for interfacing NSObject based objects"?
Similarly, I surely cannot use Swift's Unmanaged with C++ objects either, even though they are "memory managed", too. Same for objects in C allocated with "malloc".
"and once which performs no memory management."

typo: once -> one.
Hello, may I ask for a development to this article?

Unmanaged is supposed to help optimizing code by avoiding retain/release calls (see https://github.com/apple/swift/blob/master/docs/OptimizationTips.rst#advice-use-unmanaged-references-to-avoid-reference-counting-overhead). However it is not quite totally clear :-) Do you have any advice on how Unmanaged can remove useless and costly retain/release from Instruments benchmarks?

(side note: is hashcash broken on Safari?)
Thanks for your great articles and videos on memory layout of Swift.
I have been trying to solve a problem in my app. I get an NSArray from an Objective-C API and need to read it as a Double array in the Swift app.
NSArray ----> Double array
I don't want to typecast the array using 'as [Double]' since this array is huge and thus the process of typecasting is time consuming.
The array needs to be consumed using Accelerate function calls, so just need to rebind the memory to <Double>.
I have tried rebinding the memory to double but the application behaves unexpectedly. What is the right way to go about it in an optimized way? Is it even possible or O(N) is the only way?

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